Prevalence of Tuberculosis Co-infection and Associated Factors Among HIV Patients Attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South West Ethiopia

Kelemuwa Desalegn


Back ground: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among HIV infected patients. About one   third of HIV infected patients are co-infected with TB and most of them are living in low and middle income countries. HIV is the most powerful risk factor known for activation of latent mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) infection.

Objective:  To determine the prevalence of TB co-infection and associated factors among HIV patients attending anti-retroviral therapy (ART).

Method: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at ART clinic of Jimma University Specialized teaching Hospital (JUSTH) from March to April 2016.  A convenient sampling technique was used to collect data from each study participant. Data were collected by trained data collectors. An interview based structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft office excels for window 2008 and SPSS version 20. Bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regressions were done to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variables. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: From 321 totals study participants, 197(61.4%) were females. The mean age plus standard deviation (SD) was 36.08±10.2 ranging from 12-72 years and 208 (87.5%) were urban dwellers .The prevalence of TB and HIV co-infection was 94(29.3 %). Being greater or equal to 45 years old (AOR=2.4, 95%CI : 0.193 , 2.898); having CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 (AOR=2.8, 95%CI: 0.165, 0.165 , 3.769); not taking ART regularly (AOR=2.6, 95%CI: 1.006, 5.621); having history of cigarette smoking (AOR=5.9, 95%CI: 0.045 , 6.645) and having history of alcohol drinking (AOR=2.8, 95%CI: 0.220 , 3.591)  were the determinant factors associated with TB infection in HIV patients .

Conclusion: There was high prevalence of TB infection among HIV patients in the study area. High age groups, having CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3, not taking ART regularly, having history of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with HIV and TB co-infection.  Thus, health information about risk factors for TB infection and early diagnosis and treatment of TB infection are very important for HIV patients in the study area.

Keywords: HIV-TB co-infection, risk factors, Jimma

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