Seismic Stratigraphy and Reservoir Characterization of ‘E’ Field Sediments: Inferences from South-Eastern Late Miocene - Pliocene Records, Offshore Niger Delta

Matthew O. Akpan, Paul. A. Udofia, Thomas A. Harry, Monday U. Udoh, Athanasius G. Uboh


Studies of Late Miocene – Pliocene continental shelf and slopes sediments on the south-eastern continental margin, Niger Delta (a broad region from the shelf – slope break extending to the ultra-deep waters: > 1500m), have revealed markedly different responses to sea level fluctuations. Significant features of the stratigraphy include  siliciclastic-dominated facies consisting principally of one or more of the following genetic types: deltaic distributary mouth bars, channel and shoreface sands, barrier beach, shelf and offshore turbidites. These sands are Late Miocene – Early Pliocene in age and were deposited in deep water settings on the slope of the ‘Y’ field by a range of depositional processes that include slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Most of these sands could be interpreted to relate to periods of base level fall, if not Global Eustatic lowstands. Working within a sequence stratigraphic framework, eight (8) sequences have been delineated on the basis of reflection termination patterns. The major sequences were related to sea level fall during which the shelf was exposed to erosion. A cross section of the stratigraphic correlation drawn showed that the horizons are laterally continuous. However, pinch-out channel sands and lenticular sandbodies are evident. The recognition of depositional surfaces on the stratigraphic cross-sections allows subdivision of the stratigraphy into systems tracts: HST, FSST, TST and LST. On the seismic package, three (3) main seismic surfaces with distinct chronostratigraphic expressions are evident. They include non-marine, marine and fault plane surfaces. In addition, clinoform strata in the basin-margin setting of this field have relatively flat topsets and sloping clinoforms. On the shelf settings, a composite surface exists consisting of the merged sequence boundary, otherwise marked and interpreted as 4.2 Ma sequence boundary, transgressive surface (TS) and maximum flooding surface (MFS), unless separated by an incised valley fill (IVF). In the ‘Y’ field, failure, slumping and re-sedimentation processes that cause base-of-slope thickening in response to gravity and geotropic flows modify the slope. Furthermore, within the same basinal setting, affected by the same sea level rise, the facies boundaries are diachronous.

Keywords: Seismic stratigraphy, Petrophysics, Sea level change, South-eastern, Miocene – Pliocene Sedimentation, Offshore Niger Delta

DOI: 10.7176/JNSR/11-14-04

Publication date:July 31st 2020

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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