Comparative Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasmosis among Three Subgroups in Nigeria

Emmanuel C. Uttah, Raymond Ajang, Jude Ogbeche, Hannah Etta, Lawrence Etim


The study was aimed at ascertaining the seroprevalence and some risk factors of toxoplasmosis among those attending the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Using the ImmunoComb  Toxo IgG Kit for the detection of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human serum/ plasma, 216 persons were examined for toxoplasmosis. This comprised of equal number (72 persons each) of persons from three subgroups, namely, gravid women, immuno-compromised persons consisting of patients with HIV and hepatitis, and the immuno-competent persons who are the controls. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 31.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among pregnant women than among both the immuno-compromised and the immuno-competent persons (?2-test; p < 0.05 for both tests). Seroprevalence was comparable between the immuno-compromised and the immuno-competent (Controls) (?2-test; p > 0.05). Seroprevalence increased with age among gravid women, as well as among the immuno-compromised subgroups but not among the controls. Overall, seroprevalence among those living with cats/dogs (45.61%) was significantly higher than that of those living without cats/dogs (15.69%) (?2-test; p < 0.05); while the risk of infection with toxoplasmosis was four times higher than among those not living with cats (Odds Ratio 4.51). This was the same among the immune-compromised as well as the immune-competent where the risks of getting infected were five times higher among those cohabiting with cats (Odd Ratio 5.45 and Odds Ratio 5.36 respectively). Among the pregnant women, the risk of getting infected with toxoplasmosis was three times higher among those cohabiting with cats (Odds Ratio 3.00). Seroprevalence was independent of the tribal origin (?2-test; p < 0.05 for all the tests).

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii, serprevalence, pregnant women, immuno-compromised, immuno-competent, Nigeria

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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