The Ground- State Analytical Solution of Two-Interacting Electrons in a Two-Dimensional Square Lattice

Edison A. Enaibe, Daniel A. Babaiwa, Osafile Omosede


In this work, we developed the unit step model as an approximate solution to the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian to solve variationally strongly correlated interacting elections on a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice. We also showed primarily how to derive possible electronic states available for several 2D N x N square lattices, although, with special emphasis on a 2D 5 x 5 square lattice. The results emerging from our present study was compared with the results of Gutzwiller variational approach (GVA) and correlated variational approach (CVA), at the large limit of the Coulomb interaction strength (U/4t).The approximation to the Hubbard Hamiltonian study is actually necessary because of the strong limitation and difficulty pose by the Hubbard Hamiltonian as we move away from finite - size lattices to larger N - dimensional lattices. Thus this work has provided a means of overcoming the finite - size lattice defects as we pass on to a higher dimension. We have shown in this study, that the repulsive Coulomb interaction which in part leads to the strong electronic correlations, would indicate that the two electron system prefer not to condense into s-wave superconducting singlet state (s = 0), at high positive values of the interaction strength. This study reveals that when the Coulomb interaction is zero, that is, for free electron system (non-interacting), the variational parameters which describe the probability distribution of lattice electron system is the same. The spectra intensity increases with increase in the interaction strength and it decreases to zero when the interaction strength is made negatively large.

Keywords: unit step Hamiltonian, Hubbard Hamiltonian, 3D cubic lattice, interaction strength, total energy, lattice separation.

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ISSN (Paper)2224-3186 ISSN (Online)2225-0921

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