Pseudo Panel Analysis of Waste Disposal and Household Health Expenditure in Ghana: The Role of Institutions

Bismark Osei, Augustine Adu Frimpong, Samuel Kwaku Adjei


This study analyzed the effect of waste disposal on household health expenditure in Ghana by using Pseudo Panel technique to inform policy. It further analyzed the role institutions play in dealing with waste disposal and household health expenditure in Ghana. Numerous empirical studies have been carried out on waste disposal. However, these empirical studies did not focus on examining the effect of waste disposal on household health expenditure in Ghana. The study employs pseudo panel constructed from repeated cross sectional data from Ghana Living Standard Surveys (5, 6 &7) to achieve this objective. The System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) is employed to estimate the model. Results from the study indicates that, improper solid waste disposal leads to the spread of diseases like malaria, cholera, diarrhoea, dengue and others. This leads to the increase in the health expenditure of these households. However, when solid waste disposal is interacted with institutions (Faith Based Organizations), it reduces household health expenditure. The study recommends that, government institutions should complement the efforts of these Faith Based Organizations (FBOs) to help achieve higher positive outcome.

Keywords: Solid waste disposal, liquid waste disposal, household health expenditure, pseudo panel, institutions

DOI: 10.7176/JRDM/89-04

Publication date: November 30th 2022

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