Galamsey and the Making of a Deep State in Ghana: Implications for National Security and Development

Ishaq Akmey Alhassan


Illegal small scale mining is commonplace in Ghana. It easily attracts farmers and other artisans/traders because it is lucrative, despite its associated life-threatening dangers. Its potential threats to Ghana’s future and implications on national security and development in, particularly, affected districts and communities cannot be overlooked. This paper argues that illegal mining of all kind is a threat to the security of mining communities and the nation in general. Using the deep state theory, it analyses how illegal ASMcan collapse security systems and governance machinery in order to co-opt individuals and groups to their favour and perpetuate their unlawful trade. It also highlights critical policy and academic issues in the discourse on illegal mining in the Ghanaian society, and the threats illegal mining poses to national security.

Keywords: galamsey, deep state, national security, national interest, development, Ghana


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ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484

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