Factors Determining Choice of Clean Domestic Energy by Households: Evidence from Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

Philemon K. Langat, Lawrence K. Kibet, Gideon A. Obare


As in most developing countries, many attempts have been made and are continuously made to in Kenya to reduce dependence of forests as a source of energy through introduction of bans on logging and campaigns to households to shift to cleaner energy sources. Attempts through rural electrification program as envisaged in the energy policy of Kenya have been geared towards expanding clean energy access to previously unconnected sections of the population. Yet the majority households in urban areas as exemplified by Nakuru municipality residents of Kenya continue to depend on semi-clean fuels as primary source of energy. Using survey data from 300 randomly selected households in Nakuru Municipality, we sought to empirically determine the factors that influence household choice of clean domestic energy. A Multinomial logit model results showed that household’s choice between clean and semi-clean fuels was influenced by Socio-economic and demographic factors, and government energy policies. In particular,  the likelihood of clean fuels was significantly higher in households with higher relative incomes while the likelihood of use of “dirty” and semi – clean fuels was higher with middle and low income households. Based on the study results we draw policy implications.

Keywords: Energy, Choice and Domestic Fuels, Multinomial Logit, Kenya, Nakuru Municipality

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ISSN (Paper)2222-1700 ISSN (Online)2222-2855

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