Determinants of Infants and Under-Five Mortality Differentials in Tanzanian Zones: Evidence from Panel Data Analysis.

Mwoya Byaro, Patrick Musonda


Infant and under-five mortality have shown a substantial decline of 49% and 47% respectively in Tanzania over the period (1992-2010). Despite these declines, under-five and infant mortality rates in Tanzania across regions/zones are heterogeneous and unequally distributed. The main purpose of this study was to identify factors determining infant and under-five mortality differentials in Tanzanian Zones using four rounds of Demographic Health Surveys (1992, 1996, 2004 and 2010) over the period 1992 to 2010. A panel data was used to estimate factors determining infants and under-five mortality differentials across zones/regions. Spearman correlation was used for association between explanatory variables and dependent variables. The results show attendant’s birth skills, antenatal care providers, mothers education levels, ever breastfeeding and immunization coverage (vaccine measles) to contribute a strong role in improving child health and reducing infant and under-five mortality across Tanzanian zones over time. The results reveal that, zones with higher attendant’s birth skills, immunization coverage (vaccine measles), mothers education levels, antenatal care providers and ever breastfeeding have better health outcomes. The highest and lowest infant and under-five mortality over time were observed in southern and northern zones respectively. The paper recommends the importance of expanding schooling and access to quality education to all levels, educating more women in primary, secondary or higher levels and strengthening stronger health system in the access to health care services including immunizations coverage, attendants’ birth skills and antenatal care providers in the country to avoid health inequity within Tanzanian zones to achieve sustainable development goals.

Keywords: Fixed effects; Panel Data, Infant and under -five Mortality

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