Fortress Ghana? Exploring Marginality and Enterprising Behaviour among Migrants in Kumasi Zongos

George Acheampong


The study sought to establish if Ghana was seen as fortress by migrants in zongo communities and the implications for enterprising behaviour among these migrants. The study reviewed the marginality theory, enterprising behaviour and further developed a conceptual framework for testing in the study area. The study collected data quantitative from 212 micro-entrepreneurs in the study area. The data was then analyzed using quantitative data analysis techniques such as frequencies, chi-square and the linear regression. The study found that Ghana is not seen as a fortress by most migrants in the zongo communities. The study found that migrants were not marginalised politically, economically or socially. The study also found that the level of economic and political marginality is positively linked to enterprising behaviour while in terms of reactions to marginality the defiant was the only reaction positively linked to enterprising behaviour. The study suggests that migrants in zongo communities feel a sense of belonging and citizenship to Ghana. However, further studies are needed to see if Ghana should be made a fortress, so migrants can be become very entrepreneurial and contribute significantly to the economic development of the country.

Keywords: Marginality, Migration, Enterprises, Zongo, Ghana

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