Assessment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Diseases among Human Immunoeficiency Virus Positive Subjects Visiting Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic, Jimma University Specialized Hospital

Daniel Emana


Back ground: Tuberculosis has been a worldwide health problem mainly affecting developing countries. Dual infection of TB and HIV/AIDS exacerbate the burden of diseases among poor Sub-Saharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection among HIV patients visiting Jimma University Specialized Hospital, ART clinic.

Methods: Facility based cross sectional study design was conducted. Well structural and pre tested questionnaires was used to assess the socio-demographic characteristics.  HIV/AIDS patients attending ART clinic treatment and CD4+ counts follow up was requested to bring sputum three times (spot-morning-spot). The sputum part smeared on slide and the rest added to sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for concentration. Both direct and concentrated sample stained by acid fast staining and examined 100X objectives (oil immersion).

Results: Among 193 HIV patients signed consent form of participation only 157 were obtained

morning sputum specimen.  The prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) among HIV/AIDS patient in our study area were 9.6%. There is statistical significant associations between patients started ART treatments 3/156 (1.92%) and not started treatments 12/156 (7.7%) (Chi-square=3.88, p.value 0.049): besides, CD4 count above 200 cell/µl (0%) and less than 200 cells/µl 15/156 (9.6%) (Chi-square=4.59, p-value=0.000). There were no statistical clinical differences observed between direct smear and concentration techniques in our findings.

Conclusion: In current study the prevalence of PTB among HIV/AIDS patients are high. The prevalence of PTB was observed among pre-ART patients.  CD4+ below 200/µl was showed positive effects to be infected with PTB.  Early detection of PTB among HIV patients will help to minimize the complication to be raised in association with immunodeficiency.

Keywords: PTB, HIV, ART, AIDS


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