Assessment of knowledge on self-care practices by Diabetes Mellitus Type II attending Diabetes clinic at Kakamega County Referral Hospital

Mutunga-Mwenda C.S, Wilson A.L., Fatuma A., Maranga A,K


Introduction: In 2012, more than 371 million people presented with Diabetes Mellitus Type II worldwide. Approximately 4.8 million people died in 2012 due to the complications of Diabetes Mellitus Type II (American Diabetes Association 2013). In 2012, in sub-Saharan Africa, Diabetes Mellitus Type II was estimated at 6 percent of total mortality, this reflects an increase from 2.5 percent in 2000. Rapid urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyle and diet changes is a big contributing factor to the rapid increase of Diabetes Mellitus Type II in Sub-Saharan Africa.Kenya presents with heavy disease burden with life expectancy averaging 56 years. Despite the commendable successes to curb CDs (Communicable Diseases), health problem status has stagnated as a result of increase in NCDs causing 28% of all patients deaths in 2010; Diabetes Mellitus Type II accounting for 2% of the total death.Study area: Kakamega County Referral Hospital is approximately 400 kilometers from Nairobi the capital city of Kenya. It is the main referral hospital in western Kenya and receives referrals from neighboring counties e.g. Vihiga County, Bungoma County and various hospitals within the County. Target Population: Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients attending Kakamega County Referral HospitalAim: To assess adequate self-care practice by Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients attending the Diabetes clinic at Kakamega County Referral Hospital.Methods and Materials: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Researcher administered questionnaires based on W.H.O Diabetes Mellitus Type II self-care guidelines were used to collect data. Questionnaires that were filled were screened and carefully scrutinized for completeness, relevance and correctness before storage. Qualitative data was analyzed manually and Quantitative data was organized, coded, and standardized then descriptive statistics were used to analyze aided by statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) version 22. Descriptive analysis was carried out to provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Tables were used to present the data. Models of statistical analysis were done to validate the findings of the study.Results: The study found out that, only 22.02% of the participants gave correct signs and symptoms of high blood sugars. Only 13% of the participants demonstrated knowledge of signs and symptoms of low blood sugar. On low blood sugar management 84.52% gave correct responses. Frequency of feet checking was poor with only 16.67% of the participants giving correct responses. Majority (93.45%) of the participants were well versed with the complications of Diabetes Mellitus Type II. Frequency of eye examination had 90.48% of the participants giving the correct responses.Conclusion: The spoken knowledge in low literacy patient with Diabetes Mellitus Type II (SKILLD) scale was poorly scored with majority of the participants demonstrating low knowledge regarding common complications of Diabetes Mellitus Type II.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus Type II, Self-care and Patient.

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