A Review of Cellular Networks: Applications, Benefits and Limitations

Adewumi Adebayo Segun, Francis Dubem Chizea, Ayantunji Gbenro Benjamin


Over decades the world has witnessed stepwise evolution in Cellular networks technology and mobile network industry which have transformed nation’s economy and created job opportunities since 1970. The stepwise evolution of the cellular networks from first generation (1G) to fifth generation (5G) have shown tremendous increase in technology, benefits, user demand and applications.  As new generation of cellular network unfold, the challenges and limitations of preceded generations are being tackled as always depicted in the design architecture of each new generation. The first generation (1G) cellular network was based on analogue and was able to cater for mobile voice transmission but posed some challenges in terms of quality of service and security of network. Second generation (2G) came with the introduction of digitally encrypted technology and greater security for sender and receiver with services such as text messages and MMS. Third generation (3G) was developed to offer high speed data and multimedia connections to subscribers.  Fourth generation evolves from 3G with higher data rate, lower latency, greater spectral efficiency and simple protocol architecture with efficient multicast than its predecessors.  Fifth-generation (5G) networks  is being deployed to meet growing demands for data from consumer and industrial users  and  to enable the use of advanced technologies  such as smart city applications, autonomous vehicles and navigation. The envisioned sixth generation (6G) of cellular network is expected to witness an unparalleled revolution that would significantly distinguish it from the existing generations and will drastically re-shape the wireless evolution from "connected thing to connected intelligence. This paper provides a comprehensive review of cellular networks applications and challenges from 1G to 6G.

Keywords: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, 6G, Applications  Benefits, and Limitations

DOI: 10.7176/NCS/11-04

Publication date: December 31st 2020

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ISSN (Paper)2224-610X ISSN (Online)2225-0603

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