Factors Associated with Depression amongst Family Caregivers Involved in Care for Community-dwelling Persons of Middle Age and Older: Based on Data from Indonesia Family Life Survey

Shiho Kashiwagi, Nanako Tamiya, Felipe Sandoval


Caring for frail elderly individuals tends to induce depression and stress in caregivers, which constitutes a risk factor for their discontinuance of at-home care. The maintenance of family caregivers’ mental well-being is important for both family caregivers and care recipient. The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with depression amongst family caregivers involved in the care of community-dwelling persons of middle age and older in Indonesia. We analysed 1,569 dyads of community-dwelling persons of middle age and older and their family caregivers from Indonesia Family Life Survey 4, which was initiated by Research and Development (RAND, USA) in 2007. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure caregivers’ depression. In total, 53.32 % of caregivers were female family caregivers, and 8.00 % presented with depression. A multivariable analysis showed that the factors related positively to the high depression for family caregivers in Indonesia were living in an urban area, having higher per capita monthly household expenditures, having poor self-rated health, and experiencing more symptoms and feeling pains, while those related negatively to the depression were being of an older age, and having paid work. Current policies and programmes for supporting older persons in Indonesia tend to cover the lower income class; however, our results indicate that family caregivers living in urban areas and with higher monthly expenditures are associated with greater instances of depression. As an addition to the current programmes for supporting the poor elderly, we suggest that support programmes and services may be helpful for improving depression among family caregivers in Indonesia for those living in urban areas who belong to middle and upper classes.

Keywords: Depression, Family caregivers, Urban, Middle and upper class, Indonesia

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ISSN (Paper)2224-5731 ISSN (Online)2225-0972

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