Handling Practices, Evaluation of Adulteration and Microbial Quality of Raw Cow Milk around Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Mekonen Tekliye


Background: Despite milk is a highly nutritious food, it can easily be contaminated with physical, chemical and microbiological hazards.Objective: The study was conducted to assess handling practices, evaluation of adulteration and microbial quality of raw cow milk collected from farmers and dairy cooperatives at Andassa, Sebatamit and Tis Abay kebeles around Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. Method: The study involved both cross-sectional survey aimed at assessing the handling practices and a laboratory- based investigation aimed to determine adulteration and microbial quality of the milk.   A total of 94 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique and interviewed using a semi structured questionnaires. A total of 39 samples of raw cow milk were collected from farmers and dairy cooperatives.Result: The mean fat content of raw milk obtained from farmers and dairy cooperatives were 4.23 % and 4.31% respectively and the mean specific gravity of raw milk obtained from farmers and dairy cooperatives were 1.029. The overall mean total bacterial count, coliform count, isolated E.coli and Staphylococcus count of raw milk samples obtained from farmers at Sebatamit (7.22±0.56, 4.70±0.79, 3.15±0.65 and 4.97±0.52 log10 cfu/ml, respectively), Andassa (6.91±0.68, 5.02±0.59, 3.42±0.78 and 4.95±0.47 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) and Tis Abay kebeles (6.83±0.68, 5.05±0.63, 2.98±0.55 and 4.95±0.55 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) and dairy cooperatives at Sebatamit (6.42 ± 0.42, 4.41 ± 0.85, 2.91 ± 0.59 and 4.83 ± 0.37 log10 cfu/ml, respectively), Andassa (7.38  ± 0.48, 4.87 ±  0.67, 3.38  ± 0.61 and  4.64 ± 0.32 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) and Tis Abay kebeles( 6.82 ± 0.34, 4.09 ± 0.69, 3.07 ± 0.65 and 4.75 ± 0.70 log10 cfu/ml, respectively). The result of this study indicated that, about 72.3% of the farmers at the study Kebeles use common towels to dry the udder and teats of each cow. Overall, about 66.2%, 21.1% and 12.6% of the farmers respectively used warm water, cold water and both warm and cold water alternatively for washing udder.Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that the milk obtained from most farmers at the study area do not adulterate milk and some of the farmers had adulterated milk according to the East Africa raw cow milk standard. The results showed that the microbial quality of raw milk obtained from farmers and dairy cooperative were not satisfactory. Therefore, these findings highlight the need to implement improved hygiene practices to apply effective monitoring at all levels of dairy chain.

Keywords: Raw Cow Milk, Hygienic Practices, Adulteration, Microbial Quality, Farmers, Dairy Cooperative.


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