Seed Production and Dissemination Systems Analyses: The Case of Ethiopia

Kumlachew Alemu


Seed is among the most key input for improving crop production and productivity. Increasing the quality of seeds can increase the yield potential of the crop by significant folds. Hence, access to and uses of seeds are critical factors for the ability of smallholder farmers to increase agricultural production and productivity, ensuring food security and improving livelihoods. The Ethiopia seed system has undergone a tremendous change during the past three decades. But, still the sector is unable to guarantee farmers’ access to seed of improved varieties, in the right quantity, of the right quality, and in a timely manner, mainly because of the highly centralized seed distribution system and virtual absence of seed marketing conducted by the seed producing enterprises and companies. Beside these, the sector suffers from weak linkage and integration among the stakeholders; there is a substantial gap exists between the production and availability of commercial seed and farmers’ demand. This paper presents the current seed system deriving the country by analyzing the overall policy context, as well as the main interests driving seed policy formulation and implementation and the roles and interaction of the different public and private actors.  It describes the stakeholders and structure of the seed system and examines its performance in contributing to seed availability and access. It also briefly indicates the major constraints in the sector regarding with the production and dissemination of improved seed and suggests the possible solution to tackle these constraints.

Keywords: Improved seed; Seed system, Ethiopia, Food security, Seed distribution

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ISSN (Paper)2224-6088 ISSN (Online)2225-0557

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