A Review on Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

Shimelis Argaw Mekonnen Addis


Foodborne diseases are of major concern worldwide. Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common foodborne diseases in both humans and animals globally, resulting from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci, mainly S. aureus. Staphylococci survive desiccation and tolerate high levels of salt. Staphylococcal cells are destroyed by heat but if they have already produced enterotoxins in a food, the toxins will survive approved doses of irradiation and some thermal processes, including pasteurization. Any food that provides a good medium for the growth of staphylococci may be implicated in this type of foodborne illness. The foods involved in different countries vary with the diet as well as the local conditions. Staphylococcal toxins could be used as a biological agent (bioterrorist attack). Humans and animals are the primary reservoirs. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, retching, Diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and prostration and in more severe cases, headache, muscle cramping, and transient changes in blood pressure and pulse rate may occur. The enterotoxins are identified by specific antibodies, which are the basis of the detection methods. There is no effective long term decolonization therapy for S. aureus carrier.

Keywords: Enterotoxin, Foodborne, Staphylococci, Food poisoning, S. aureus

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