Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Bread from Wheat, Acha and Mung Bean Composite Flours

Nanyen Dabels, Bibiana Igbabul, Faustina Shar, Benbella Iorliam, Joseph Abu


Wheat flour, acha flour and mung bean flours were blended into different ratios and used to produce bread.  The flours were blended into six different ratios of wheat : acha : mung beans as follows: 100:0:0 (sample A) for the control, 80:10:10 (B), 70:15:15 (C), 60:20:20 (D), 50:30:20 (E) and 50:20:30 (F). Proximate composition of the flour blends and bread were determined. Selected minerals and vitamins were also determined. The physical evaluation of the bread samples was carried out and the bread samples were then subjected to sensory evaluation. The protein, ash, fibre and fat contents of all the samples increased significantly with increasing substitution of wheat flour with acha and mung bean flours. Moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased with increased substitution of the wheat flour with acha and mung beans. Protein and ash increased from 12.40% to 17.48% and from 0.88% to 2.36% respectively, showing significant difference between the different flour blends. The minerals and vitamins (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins A and C) all increased with corresponding increase in the level of substitution of wheat flour with acha and mung beans. There was significant difference between the control and the blended samples. Bread loaf weight decreased with increased substitution of wheat with acha and mung beans from 271g to 234g. The specific volume of the control bread and those made from the flour blends were significantly different as bread made from the blends had lower specific volumes (1.55 to 1.45cm3/g). Sample B bread was not significantly different from the control. There was significant difference in the oven spring of the control bread and the other composite bread. Sensory evaluation scores showed that all the bread samples were generally accepted on a nine point hedonic scale and there was no significance difference between 100% wheat bread and bread produced from 10% acha, 10% mung beans and 80% wheat flour blends.

Keywords: Bread, Composite flour, Acha, Mung beans, wheat

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