Expressing Fear via Intonation in Kurdish with Special Reference to English

Safwat Al-Bazzaz, Sarkawt Qadir


Intonation is an inseparable part of human speech. It can perform several functions. One of these functions is the expression of attitudes or emotions, among them is fear. The present research paper investigates the relation between intonation and expressing fear both in Kurdish and English. To achieve this aim, the study endeavours to clarify the intonation patterns used to express fear by depending on seven variables: the tone, the height of the pre-head and the head, the width of pitch range, the key, and markedness. In addition, references are also made to other prosodic and paralinguistic features which are also integral parts of speech and important factors for the expression of emotions.

The study elaborates the function in question in Kurdish by drawing and thoroughly describing the diagrammatic representations of twenty-two selected tone-groups of various syntactic structures. Whereas in English, the relation between intonation and fear depends on the literature available. One of the most important conclusions which can be drawn from the study is that fear is carried out mostly by the falling tone, either from high to mid or mid to low, and a narrow pitch range as well as the accompaniment of whispering and shivering as paralinguistic features.

Keywords: Intonation, Attitudinal functions, Emotions, Fear, Pitch range

Full Text: PDF
Download the IISTE publication guideline!

To list your conference here. Please contact the administrator of this platform.

Paper submission email:

ISSN 2422-8435

Please add our address "" into your email contact list.

This journal follows ISO 9001 management standard and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Copyright ©