Development and Evaluation of Value-Added Biscuits of an Under-Utilised Bitter Melon Plant

Jimah, A., Odion-Owase, E., Suleiman, M.


Bitter melon plant is often used for some medicinal purposes in traditional medicine but its value added food products was investigated. Wheat biscuits were made for diabetic and health conscious individuals by incorporation of bitter melon extract at different levels such as 0%, 3% and 5% as sample A (control), B and C respectively. Sensory properties of the bitter melon biscuits were ranked above acceptable range by panel of judges; however, the biscuit with 100% wheat was far ranked highest in colour, texture, taste, flavour, and general acceptability. There was significance difference (p ≤ 0.05) among the three samples. The acceptability of sample A was 8.70 while sample B and C were 7.10 and 6.40. The proximate composition showed that there was significnt difference (p≤0.05) among the three samples in all the parameters analysed. The incorporation of bitter melon powder into the biscuits increased the ash content from 1.21 to 1.42%, fat content from 1.61 to 1.72%, protein from 2.37 to 2.49%. On the other hand, the crude fibre and carbohydrate were decreased significantly. This could be that the bitter melon biscuit reduced the high carbohydrate content to a low content from 87.16% to 84.17%. The phytochemical content increased as more bitter melon powder was incorporated into the biscuits and there was significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the samples. There was increased in phytate from 1.28% to 1.64%, tannin was 1.30 to 1.44%, oxalate was 1.10 to1.33%, saponin was 0.41 to 0.48% and alkaloid was 0.21 to 0.28% respectively. Thus, the products developed had higher ash, fat, protein and all the phytochemicals and sample B also had good colour, flavour and palatability and could still benefit diabetic, obese and health conscious people.

Keywords: bitter melon, biscuit, proximate composition, phytochemicals, sensory evaluation, diabetes

DOI: 10.7176/FSQM/105-06

Publication date: February 28th 2021

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