Wheat Production, Marketing and Consumption in Ethiopia

Regasa Dibaba


Wheat is beneficial to man long before the dawn of recorded history. Ethiopia is one of the largest wheat producers in sub-Saharan African next to South Africa. Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops grown in most parts of Ethiopia. It contributes to the major share of daily consumption and cash source. The purpose of this study was to realize the production trends, consumption and utilization patterns, market supply and distribution of wheat in Ethiopia. The review based on data obtained from the Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE), international agencies such as USDA, FAO and different international websites. The local production of wheat in Ethiopia failed to meet the increasing domestic demands of wheat and wheat products. The flour factories receive allocated amount of wheat grain on monthly basis at price set by the Government; mill it and sale to selected bakeries at pre-determined price. Thus, imported wheat through EGTE has distributed at subsidized price to flour factories which go through consumers to maintain price of bread affordable to low income groups especially in urban areas. The Ethiopian farm households consume about 60% of wheat produced; 20% is sold; and the remainder is used for seed, in- kind payments for labor, and animal feed. The wheat consumption trend in Ethiopia is gradually increasing in urban areas due to high population growth (about 2.6 % a year), migration of people to urban areas that increases in condominium living and changes in life styles and it accounts for about 11% of the national calorie intake in the country. The total consumption of wheat increased by 20 percent in recent years, making it the second most consumed cereal in Ethiopia after Maize.

Keywords: Wheat Production, Marketing, Importing, Consumption, Ethiopia.

DOI: 10.7176/JMCR/55-02

Publication date: April 30th 2019

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